REBEL forces in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) vowed on Wednesday to "liberate" all of the vast Central African country as they began seizing towns near the Rwandan border and spoke of a 1,609km march to the capital, Kinshasa.
The M23 rebels, widely believed to be backed by Rwanda, captured the eastern city of Goma on Tuesday, a provincial capital home to 1-million people. United Nations (UN) peacekeepers simply looked on, after Congolese troops had quit the town.
"The journey to liberate Congo has started now," Vianney Kazarama, spokesman for the rebel group, told a crowd of more than 1,000 at a stadium in Goma. "We’re going to move on to Bukavu, and then to Kinshasa. Are you ready to join us?"
Hours later, a rebel unit took control of Sake, a strategic town near Goma on the road running the length of Lake Kivu to Bukavu, 100km away at the lake’s southern end. In the 1990s, the current president’s father burst out of the same area at the head of a rebel force to overthrow Mobutu Sese Seko.
A Reuters news agency correspondent in Sake saw rebels in control of the town and no sign of fighting. On the outskirts of Goma, he saw buildings that had been shelled on Tuesday in heavy fighting as the troops of the Kinshasa government’s FARDC army withdrew from the town, under fire from M23. The bodies of four soldiers lay in the road there, near an abandoned tank, and another body in civilian clothing lay in undergrowth among the houses.
The government in Kinshasa issued a statement on Wednesday admitting it had lost the battle but pledging to win the war: "Victory will be ours. That is what the Congolese want."
The rebels accuse President Joseph Kabila of failing to grant them posts in the army in line with a peace deal that ended a previous revolt in 2009. The current rebellion also reflects local ethnic tensions, intertwined with Rwanda’s desire for influence over a neighbouring region rich in minerals.
Rwanda previously backed the insurgency that swept Mr Kabila’s father, Laurent, to power in 1996 after a march across the DRC to oust Mr Mobutu, veteran dictator of a country then known as Zaire.
The new fighting has aggravated tensions between the DRC and Rwanda, which the Congolese government says is orchestrating the insurgency as a means of grabbing resources, which include diamonds, gold, and coltan, an ore of rare metals used in electronics and high-tech materials.
UN experts have backed the DRC’s accusations — implicating Rwanda’s defence minister. The government in Kigali denies the charges and says Kinshasa and world powers have failed to address the root causes of years of conflict in the region.
Mr Kabila and Rwandan President Paul Kagame met on Wednesday in the Ugandan capital, Kampala, after holding three-way talks with Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni late on Tuesday. The Ugandan government said foreign ministers from the Great Lakes region had urged the African Union to deploy troops to halt the rebels.
But there are signs of trouble for Mr Kabila already spreading in the resource-rich country the size of western Europe.
A Reuters reporter saw hundreds of young men with sticks sack the headquarters of Mr Kabila’s PPRD party in Bukavu, in protest against the Congolese government’s failure to defend Goma.
Goma itself was quiet on Wednesday, but at the rebel rally in the stadium, dozens of members of the security forces who had not fled the city appeared to have joined the insurgents.
While regional mediator Uganda brokered talks between the DRC and Rwanda, whose armies have repeatedly clashed during nearly two decades of on-off conflict around the Great Lakes, the UN Security Council condemned the rebels.
It approved a French resolution that "demands the immediate withdrawal of the M23 from Goma, the cessation of any further advances by the M23 and that its members immediately and permanently disband and lay down their arms".
The council expressed "deep concern at reports indicating that external support continues to be provided to the M23, including through troop reinforcement, tactical advice and the supply of equipment, causing a significant increase of the military abilities of the M23". It "demands that any and all outside support to the M23 cease immediately".
The French government also expressed frustration with the UN peacekeepers, from India, South Africa and Uruguay, who gave up defending the city after Congo’s army retreated. Paris called it "absurd" that the UN force did not protect Goma.
But a senior UN official, who spoke on condition of anonymity, said the withdrawal of Congolese civilian officials and troops had left a void it could not fill alone.
"We’re not the army of any country, let alone the Congolese army, and it’s not for us to take positions by ourselves to stop a rebel attack, or the movement of rebels," the official said.
While conflict has simmered almost constantly in the DRC’s east in recent years, this is the first time Goma has fallen to rebels since foreign occupying armies officially pulled out under peace deals at the end of the most recent 1998-2003 war.
Aid agencies have estimated that 5-million people have died from fighting and conflict-related disease since that war began.
Tens of thousands of people have already fled days of fighting between the rebels and the UN-backed Congolese soldiers.
New York-based Human Rights Watch said at least 11 civilians had been killed in the latest fighting for Goma.
In Sake, 25km west of Goma, local people said Congolese troops had briefly regrouped there before pulling out again before the rebels drove in on Wednesday.
"The ARC arrived an hour ago. Luckily there was no force used. Now they’re pretty much everywhere," said Christian Bigebika, executive secretary of an association of local rights groups. "The army had already left."
The DRC government on Tuesday rejected the idea of talks with rebels. But Rwanda’s foreign minister said the fall of Goma had shown there was no military solution to the crisis, so Kinshasa had to seek the path of dialogue.
As a result, Mr Kabila faces the tricky choice between dialogue with the rebels, which will be politically unpopular, and trying to rally his scattered forces in North Kivu province.
He had been praised for securing peace deals that ended the last war, but his re-election late last year provoked demonstrations by many frustrated with the slow pace of change.